What is motivation?
The word motivation comes from the Latin "motus", which means moved, and "motio" which means movement.
According to Harold Koontz, motivation is a generic term that is applied to a series of impulses, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. This is to say that administrators motivate their subordinates, in other words, do things which they hope to satisfy those impulses and desires and induce their subordinates to act in a determined manner.
As human beings, our motivation can be extremely complex, even contradictory. Some people may be motivated with the desire of acquiring goods or services such as vehicles, a house, clothes, travels, etc. At the same time, another person may be motivated by his wish of a higher social status, self-growth, etc.
What are motivators?
In the concept of motivation we also have motivators, which according to Koontz are those things that induce a person to reach a higher performance. Consequently, they are all those rewards or incentives that administrators give the employee, for them to feel enthusiastic with the development of their tasks.
Motivation or satisfaction?
Two concepts that are usually confused are those of motivation and satisfaction. As it was stated before, the first on refers to the drive or desire that a person or employee has to achieve something in particular; while the second, refers to the joy you experiment once a desire is fulfilled. In other words, motivation implies an impulse toward a result, while satisfaction is the reached result.
Some theories about motivation.
Theory of the Hierarchy of Necessities..
This theory is focused on the internal needs of people, created by Abraham Maslow. It presents five types of necessities, which are classified in hierarchy, thus:
1. Physiological needs: are those indispensable needs to keep an organic balance in an individual, such as food, thirst, sleep, air, roof, clothing, etc.
2. Need of Safety: they constitute the individual desire of being safe both physically as well as psychologically. Here we can mention citizen safety, work stability, etc.
3. Need of belonging: the need to belong to a group is vital for people, which is why affective relationships with other human beings are established.
4. Need of esteem:: every person needs a certain degree of power in his group, to be respected and self-sufficient, as well as status and acknowledgment.
5. Need of self-growth: it constitutes the tendency of men to develop his own potential. It can be expressed as the desire of becoming all you can be, for example, the development of new and creative ideas, academic and professional achievements, etc.
X and Y Theory of motivation.
Douglas McGregor gave birth to the X and Y theory. His thesis on human capabilities and the need for self-growth is based in theories by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg.
The X theory states that humans feel distaste and apathy for work, which they perform in a forced manner and would prefer to be told what and how to do things.
On the other hand, the Y theory supports the fact that work is something so natural to humans as sleeping or playing is, that people are capable of self-control and self-directed, that they posses a great creative capability.
For McGregor, the starting point for administration responds to the question on how an administrator sees himself in relation to others. From this we can conclude:
a) The X theory is pessimistic, static and rigid.
b) The Y theory is optimistic, dynamic and flexible.
c) Theories are based in implications; they are not prescriptions nor suggestions.
d) They don't necessarily imply a strict administration type nor a weak one.
e) These theories are visions about human behavior.